Renaissance-Reformation Review Sheet

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Renaissance and Reformation Test Review Sheet 2011


Italian Renaissance humanism

- political participation

- based on Greco-Roman classics.

- Humanize Christianity Christianity

- Individual is important

- basic worth of individual achievement



- ruler should be feared not loved

- use cunning and duplicity to maintain power

- make and discard alliances when they benefit the ruler

- no moral principles just results


Northern Renaissance

- promoted Humanism

- more diverse than Italy

- more devoted to religious reforms. 

- more social justice


The Ninety-Five Theses

- criticize Catholic corruption

- challenged the practice of selling indulgences.

- Indulgences

            - buy release from earthly penance and punishment

            - money for release from sins

            - corrupts Church Officials


Martin Luther?

-sola scriptura                                               

-sola fide

-The Pope is not Supreme

2 Sacraments



            - added predestination to Luther’s doctrine 


            -Henry VII

            - needs money, divorce and a son


Council of Trent    

- It reformed the practices of the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant  reformation

- reaffirms indulgences, mass, communion, sacraments etc…


The Peace of Augsburg

- Calvinists were banned in Germany

- temporary compromise between Catholics and Lutherans

- Recognized Lutheranism in parts of Germany

- the ruler of the land would determine the religion of the land


The Edict of Nantes 

Henry of Navarre (Paris is worth a Mass)

recognized Huguenot religious and political freedom


The Birthplace of the Renaissance

Renaissance art

- Perspective, realism, geometrical arrangement




Da Vinci                                                           




the Medici

The Hapsburgs                                               



John Wycliffe?

-bible translated into English

- people need not obey corrupt clergy

- Priests do not perform miracles at Mass           

- The Bible is the ultimate religious authority


Causes of the reformation

- Church corruption                       

- the printing press

- indulgences                                               

- conciliarism



- New Testament in the original Greek

- Catholic Priest, reformer, wanted one Church




Catholic (Counter) Reformation

- Jesuits



Catherine de Medici tried to keep the throne of France for her young sons by:

- played off Catholics v. protestants

- St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre



30 Years War

- revolt against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor

- Bohemian (first), Swedish, Danish French phases                                                           

- Catholic France fought Catholic Austria                 

- 1/3 of the German population died                 

- trade was crippled throughout Europe

- Germany divided HRE collapses

            -Peace of Westphalia

                        -Each ruler chose the official religion for his state

                        -private worship for all beliefs was permitted in each state           

                        -France and Sweden gained land from Germany


The Reconquista

            - Ferdinand and Isabella

            - Reconquest of Spain from the Moors

            - Expulsion of Jews from Spain

            - Inqusition




1. Describe Lutheran doctrine.  In what specific ways does it differ from Catholic doctrine?  Why did the Reformation spread so rapidly within the Holy Roman Empire and how did Luther’s stand on the Peasant War place him on the side of the established political order?


2.  Evaluate the Catholic Reformation.  Include in your essay the activities and decisions of the Council of Trent.  What impact did the Council’s actions have on artistic and religious life after 1563?






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