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Renaissance-Reformation Review Sheet

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Renaissance and Reformation Test Review Sheet 2011

 

Italian Renaissance humanism

- political participation

- based on Greco-Roman classics.

- Humanize Christianity Christianity

- Individual is important

- basic worth of individual achievement

 

Machiavelli

- ruler should be feared not loved

- use cunning and duplicity to maintain power

- make and discard alliances when they benefit the ruler

- no moral principles just results

 

Northern Renaissance

- promoted Humanism

- more diverse than Italy

- more devoted to religious reforms. 

- more social justice

 

The Ninety-Five Theses

- criticize Catholic corruption

- challenged the practice of selling indulgences.

- Indulgences

            - buy release from earthly penance and punishment

            - money for release from sins

            - corrupts Church Officials

 

Martin Luther?

-sola scriptura                                               

-sola fide

-The Pope is not Supreme

2 Sacraments

 

Calvinists

            - added predestination to Luther’s doctrine 

Anglicans

            -Henry VII

            - needs money, divorce and a son

 

Council of Trent    

- It reformed the practices of the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant  reformation

- reaffirms indulgences, mass, communion, sacraments etc…

 

The Peace of Augsburg

- Calvinists were banned in Germany

- temporary compromise between Catholics and Lutherans

- Recognized Lutheranism in parts of Germany

- the ruler of the land would determine the religion of the land

 

The Edict of Nantes 

Henry of Navarre (Paris is worth a Mass)

recognized Huguenot religious and political freedom

 

The Birthplace of the Renaissance

Renaissance art

- Perspective, realism, geometrical arrangement

 

Brunelleschi                                               

Giotto

Da Vinci                                                           

Boccaccio

Donatello                                                           

Michelangelo                                   

the Medici

The Hapsburgs                                               

Cervantes

 

John Wycliffe?

-bible translated into English

- people need not obey corrupt clergy

- Priests do not perform miracles at Mass           

- The Bible is the ultimate religious authority

 

Causes of the reformation

- Church corruption                       

- the printing press

- indulgences                                               

- conciliarism

 

Erasmus

- New Testament in the original Greek

- Catholic Priest, reformer, wanted one Church

 

Tyndale

 

Catholic (Counter) Reformation

- Jesuits

 

 

Catherine de Medici tried to keep the throne of France for her young sons by:

- played off Catholics v. protestants

- St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

 

 

30 Years War

- revolt against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor

- Bohemian (first), Swedish, Danish French phases                                                           

- Catholic France fought Catholic Austria                 

- 1/3 of the German population died                 

- trade was crippled throughout Europe

- Germany divided HRE collapses

            -Peace of Westphalia

                        -Each ruler chose the official religion for his state

                        -private worship for all beliefs was permitted in each state           

                        -France and Sweden gained land from Germany

 

The Reconquista

            - Ferdinand and Isabella

            - Reconquest of Spain from the Moors

            - Expulsion of Jews from Spain

            - Inqusition

 

Essays:

 

1. Describe Lutheran doctrine.  In what specific ways does it differ from Catholic doctrine?  Why did the Reformation spread so rapidly within the Holy Roman Empire and how did Luther’s stand on the Peasant War place him on the side of the established political order?

 

2.  Evaluate the Catholic Reformation.  Include in your essay the activities and decisions of the Council of Trent.  What impact did the Council’s actions have on artistic and religious life after 1563?

 

 

 

 

 

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